aKey Sources

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
http://www.ahrq.gov/index.html

American Cancer Society
http://www.cancer.org/

American Diabetes Association
http://www.diabetes.org/

American Heart Association
http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/

American Stroke Association
http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/

Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP)
http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/

National Cancer Institute
http://www.cancer.gov/

National Cancer Institute, Surveillance, Epidemiology & End Results (SEER) Program
Cancer Fact Sheets
http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/

aHeart Attack

Average Medical Cost

The average bill for treatment for a heart attack without major complications at a hospital in Danville, Ark., was $3,334. Across the country in Modesto, Calif., the same diagnosis incurred an average bill of $92,057.

CNN Money. Your heart attack bill: $3,300 in Arkansas, $92,000 in California. Chris Isidore.
http://money.cnn.com/2013/05/08/news/economy/hospital-bills/
Date accessed: Nov. 26, 2014

The annual healthcare cost for workers who suffered a heart attack or other form of acute coronary syndrome, including out-of-pocket expenses, was $8,170. Of that, $7,545 was for hospitalizations and other medical care and $625 for pharmacy costs.

American Heart Association. AHA / ASA Newsroom. Heart attack packs a wallop to wallet of survivors, their employers.
http://newsroom.heart.org/news/heart-attack-packs-a-wallop-to-239563
Date accessed: Nov. 26, 2014

In 2011, the real cost for a heart valve procedure and hospitalization was $53,282.

National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2012: With Special Feature on Emergency Care, Table 115.
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/2012/115.pdf
Date Accessed: Nov. 7, 2014

In 2011, the cost for a coronary artery bypass graft procedure was $38,707.

National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2012: With Special Feature on Emergency Care, Table 115.
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/2012/115.pdf
Date Accessed: Nov. 7, 2014

In 2011, the cost for a cardiac pacemaker insertion or replacement was $33,194.

National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2012: With Special Feature on Emergency Care, Table 115.
http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/2012/115.pdf
Date Accessed: Nov. 13, 2014

Mean hospital costs in 2012 were highest for surgical stays ($21,200)—2.5 times the mean costs for medical stays ($8,500) and nearly five times the mean costs for maternal and neonatal stays ($4,300).

The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Statistical Brief #181, Costs for Hospital Stays in the United States, 2012. Brian Moore, Ph.D., Katharine Levit, B.A., and Anne Elixhauser, Ph.D., Published October 2014
http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb181-Hospital-Costs-United-States-2012.pdf
Date Accessed: Nov. 20, 2014

General/Statistical Information

Heart Disease is the number one killer.

American Heart Association
http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/More/MyHeartandStrokeNews/Family-History-and-Heart-Disease-Stroke_UCM_442849_Article.jsp
Date Accessed: Nov. 7, 2014

aStroke

Average Medical Cost

The average cost of care for a patient up to 90 days after stroke is $15,000. For 10 percent of patients, the cost of care for the first 90 days after a stroke is $35,000.

University Hospital, Newark, New Jersey. The Stroke Center at University Hospital. Stroke statistics.
http://www.uhnj.org/stroke/stats.htm
Date Accessed: Nov. 13, 2014

The average lifetime cost of a stroke is $100,000 for each survivor.

American Heart Association, American Stroke Association; Frequently Asked Questions for Get With The Guidelines-Stroke and ASTP
http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/General/Frequently-Asked-Questions-for-Get-With-The-Guidelines-Stroke-and-ASTP_UCM_315318_Article.jsp#14
Date Accessed: Nov. 13, 2014

Costs to treat stroke in America are projected to more than double and the number of people having strokes may increase 20 percent by 2030, according to the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

American Heart Association Policy Statement May 22, 2013
http://newsroom.heart.org/news/costs-to-treat-stroke-in-america-may-double-by-2030
Date Accessed: Dec. 1, 2014

Mean hospital costs in 2012 were highest for surgical stays ($21,200)—2.5 times the mean costs for medical stays ($8,500) and nearly five times the mean costs for maternal and neonatal stays ($4,300).

The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Statistical Brief #181, Costs for Hospital Stays in the United States, 2012. Brian Moore, Ph.D., Katharine Levit, B.A., and Anne Elixhauser, Ph.D., Published October 2014
http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb181-Hospital-Costs-United-States-2012.pdf
Date Accessed: Nov. 20, 2014

General/Statistical Information

Each year, women have more strokes than men, and stroke kills more women than men.

American Heart Association/American Stroke Association
http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/AboutStroke/UnderstandingRisk/Understanding-Stroke-Risk_UCM_308539_SubHomePage.jsp
Date Accessed: Nov. 13, 2014

aColon Cancer

Average Out of Pocket Cost

Cancer is a costly illness. It can take a toll on your health, your emotions, your time, your relationships – and your wallet. There will be unforeseen and unexpected charges and even the best health insurance won’t cover all your costs.

American Cancer Society
http://www.cancer.org/treatment/findingandpayingfortreatment/managinginsuranceissues/the-cost-of-cancer-treatment
Date Accessed: Nov. 13, 2014

Average Medical Cost

For individuals over age 65, the average annual costs of care for colorectal cancer are $51,327 (female) and $51,812 (male).

U.S. National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, www.cancer.org
http://costprojections.cancer.gov/annual.costs.html
Date Accessed: Nov. 13, 2014

For colon cancer patients who have Medicare and are treated in the Veterans Health Administration, treatment costs were approximately $30,000/patient for early-stage detection and $120,000/patient for late-stage detection.

VA Colon Cancer Quality and Costs. Study: Estimating Healthcare Costs for Colon Cancer. Denise M. Hynes, RN, MPH, PhD.
http://www.hsrd.research.va.gov/for_researchers/cyber_seminars/archives/hmcs-101712.pdf
and http://www.hsrd.research.va.gov/for_researchers/cyber_seminars/catalog/transcripts/536.doc
Date accessed: Nov. 25, 2014

Average annual health care expenses for newly diagnosed cancer patients younger than 65 years were $16,910 in 2007, with $2,159 (13%) paid directly out of survivors' pockets.

American Cancer Society, Cancer Treatment & Survivorship Facts & Figures, 2012-2013, page 20
http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@epidemiologysurveilance/documents/document/acspc-033876.pdf
Date Accessed: Nov. 13, 2014

The general price for a new cancer drug is over $100,000 per year.

CBS News.com.
http://www.cbsnews.com/news/the-cost-of-cancer-drugs/
Date accessed: Nov. 25, 2014

The typical new cancer drug coming on the market a decade ago cost about $4,500 per month (in 2012 dollars); since 2010 the median price has been around $10,000. Two of the new cancer drugs cost more than $35,000 each per month of treatment.

New York Times.com. In Cancer Care, Cost Matters. Peter B. Bach, Leonard B. Saltz, and Robert E. Wittes.
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/15/opinion/a-hospital-says-no-to-an-11000-a-month-cancer-drug.html?_r=2&
Date accessed: Nov. 25, 2014

Mean hospital costs in 2012 were highest for surgical stays ($21,200)—2.5 times the mean costs for medical stays ($8,500) and nearly five times the mean costs for maternal and neonatal stays ($4,300).

The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Statistical Brief #181, Costs for Hospital Stays in the United States, 2012. Brian Moore, Ph.D., Katharine Levit, B.A., and Anne Elixhauser, Ph.D., Published October 2014
http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb181-Hospital-Costs-United-States-2012.pdf
Date Accessed: Nov. 20, 2014

General/Statistical Information

Overall, the lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer is about 1 in 20 (5%). This risk is slightly lower in women than in men.

American Cancer Society
http://www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/detailedguide/colorectal-cancer-key-statistics
Date Accessed: Jan. 5, 2015

About 9 out of 10 people diagnosed with colorectal cancer are at least 50 years old.

American Cancer Society
http://www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/detailedguide/colorectal-cancer-risk-factors
Date Accessed: Nov. 17, 2014

aLung Cancer

Average Out of Pocket Cost

Cancer is a costly illness. It can take a toll on your health, your emotions, your time, your relationships – and your wallet. There will be unforeseen and unexpected charges and even the best health insurance won’t cover all your costs.

American Cancer Society
http://www.cancer.org/treatment/findingandpayingfortreatment/managinginsuranceissues/the-cost-of-cancer-treatment
Date Accessed: Nov. 17, 2014

Average Medical Cost

Average Annual Costs of Care, Lung Cancer: $60,533 (female); $60,885 (male); for individuals over age 65.

U.S. National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, www.cancer.org
http://costprojections.cancer.gov/annual.costs.html
Date Accessed: Nov. 17, 2014

For a 72-year-old diagnosed with lung cancer in 2000, monthly costs in the first 6 months of care ranged from $2,687 (no active treatment) to $9,360 (chemo-radiotherapy), and varied by stage at diagnosis and histologic type. Patient-liability costs represented up to 21.6% of care costs and increased over the period 1992–2003 for most stage and treatment categories.

2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Lung cancer treatment costs, including patient responsibility, by stage of disease and treatment modality, 1992–2003. Lauren E. Cipriano, BSc, BA, Dorothy Romanus, RPh, MSc, Craig C. Earle, MD, MSc, Bridget A. Neville, MPH, Elkan F. Halpern, PhD, G. Scott Gazelle, MD, MPH, PhD, Pamela M. McMahon, PhD.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3150743/
Date Accessed: Nov. 17, 2014

The study population consisted of 4,068 patients; mean (SD) age was 65 years. Over a median follow-up of 334 days, study subjects averaged 1.5 hospital admissions, 8.9 total inpatient days, and 69 physician office and hospital outpatient visits. Mean (95% CI) cumulative total healthcare costs were $125,849 ($120,228, $131,231).

BioMed Central; Research article: Healthcare costs in patients with metastatic lung cancer receiving chemotherapy; Montserrat Vera-Llonch, Derek Weycker, Andrew Glass, Sue Gao, Rohit Borker, Beth Barber and Gerry Oster.
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6963/11/305/
Date Accessed: Nov. 17, 2014

Average annual health care expenses for newly diagnosed cancer patients younger than 65 years were $16,910 in 2007, with $2,159 (13%) paid directly out of survivors' pockets.

American Cancer Society, Cancer Treatment & Survivorship Facts & Figures, 2012-2013, page 20
http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@epidemiologysurveilance/documents/document/acspc-033876.pdf
Date Accessed: Nov. 17, 2014

The general price for a new cancer drug is over $100,000 per year.

CBS News.com.
http://www.cbsnews.com/news/the-cost-of-cancer-drugs/
Date accessed: Nov. 25, 2014

The typical new cancer drug coming on the market a decade ago cost about $4,500 per month (in 2012 dollars); since 2010 the median price has been around $10,000. Two of the new cancer drugs cost more than $35,000 each per month of treatment.

New York Times.com. In Cancer Care, Cost Matters. Peter B. Bach, Leonard B. Saltz, and Robert E. Wittes.
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/15/opinion/a-hospital-says-no-to-an-11000-a-month-cancer-drug.html?_r=2&
Date accessed: Nov. 25, 2014

Mean hospital costs in 2012 were highest for surgical stays ($21,200)—2.5 times the mean costs for medical stays ($8,500) and nearly five times the mean costs for maternal and neonatal stays ($4,300).

The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Statistical Brief #181, Costs for Hospital Stays in the United States, 2012. Brian Moore, Ph.D., Katharine Levit, B.A., and Anne Elixhauser, Ph.D., Published October 2014
http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb181-Hospital-Costs-United-States-2012.pdf
Date Accessed: Nov. 20, 2014

General/Statistical Information

Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women.

American Cancer Society
http://www.cancer.org/cancer/lungcancer-non-smallcell/detailedguide/non-small-cell-lung-cancer-key-statistics
Date Accessed: Nov. 17, 2014

About 2 out of 3 people diagnosed with lung cancer are 65 or older.

American Cancer Society
http://www.cancer.org/cancer/lungcancer-non-smallcell/detailedguide/non-small-cell-lung-cancer-key-statistics
Date Accessed: Nov. 17, 2014

Overall, the chance that a man will develop lung cancer in his lifetime is about 1 in 13; for a woman, the risk is about 1 in 16.

American Cancer Society
http://www.cancer.org/cancer/lungcancer-non-smallcell/detailedguide/non-small-cell-lung-cancer-key-statistics
Date Accessed: Nov. 17, 2014

aBreast Cancer

Average Out of Pocket Cost

Cancer is a costly illness. It can take a toll on your health, your emotions, your time, your relationships – and your wallet. There will be unforeseen and unexpected charges and even the best health insurance won’t cover all your costs.

American Cancer Society
http://www.cancer.org/treatment/findingandpayingfortreatment/managinginsuranceissues/the-cost-of-cancer-treatment
Date Accessed: Nov. 17, 2014

A study from Duke University Medical Center and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute found self-reported, out-of-pocket, cancer-related costs averaged $712 a month.

Duke University Medical Center and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute; study presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology.
http://www.dukehealth.org/health_library/news/medical-bills-force-cancer-patients-to-skimp-on-care-and-necessities
Date Accessed: Nov. 17, 2014

Average Medical Cost

Average Annual Costs of Care, breast cancer: $23,078; for individuals over age 65.

U.S. National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, www.cancer.org
http://costprojections.cancer.gov/annual.costs.html
Date Accessed: Nov. 18, 2014

Average annual health care expenses for newly diagnosed cancer patients younger than 65 years were $16,910 in 2007, with $2,159 (13%) paid directly out of survivors' pockets.

American Cancer Society, Cancer Treatment & Survivorship Facts & Figures, 2012-2013, page 20
http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@epidemiologysurveilance/documents/document/acspc-033876.pdf
Date Accessed: Nov. 18, 2014

A SEER-Medicare analysis found that the mean lifetime cost of metastatic breast cancer was $110,000.

Treatment patterns and costs following metastatic breast cancer diagnosis in U.S. women: A SEER-Medicare analysis. D. C. A. Taylor, M. Sanon, K. Clements, S. Balu, C. Faria, A. Teitelbaum; Innovus, Medford, MA; Eisai Inc., Woodcliff Lake, NJ; Innovus, San Diego, CA.
http://meetinglibrary.asco.org/content/86587-111
Date accessed: Nov. 25, 2014

The general price for a new cancer drug is over $100,000 per year.

CBS News.com.
http://www.cbsnews.com/news/the-cost-of-cancer-drugs/
Date accessed: Nov. 25, 2014

The typical new cancer drug coming on the market a decade ago cost about $4,500 per month (in 2012 dollars); since 2010 the median price has been around $10,000. Two of the new cancer drugs cost more than $35,000 each per month of treatment.

New York Times.com. In Cancer Care, Cost Matters. Peter B. Bach, Leonard B. Saltz, and Robert E. Wittes.
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/15/opinion/a-hospital-says-no-to-an-11000-a-month-cancer-drug.html?_r=2&
Date accessed: Nov. 25, 2014

Mean hospital costs in 2012 were highest for surgical stays ($21,200)—2.5 times the mean costs for medical stays ($8,500) and nearly five times the mean costs for maternal and neonatal stays ($4,300).

The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Statistical Brief #181, Costs for Hospital Stays in the United States, 2012. Brian Moore, Ph.D., Katharine Levit, B.A., and Anne Elixhauser, Ph.D., Published October 2014
http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb181-Hospital-Costs-United-States-2012.pdf
Date Accessed: Nov. 20, 2014

General/Statistical Information

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women.

American Cancer Society
http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/detailedguide/breast-cancer-key-statistics
Date Accessed: Nov. 18, 2014

61 is the median age of diagnosis for breast cancer.

U.S. National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, New Cases
http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/breast.html
Date Accessed: Nov. 18, 2014

aProstate Cancer

Average Out of Pocket Cost

Cancer is a costly illness. It can take a toll on your health, your emotions, your time, your relationships – and your wallet. There will be unforeseen and unexpected charges and even the best health insurance won’t cover all your costs.

American Cancer Society
http://www.cancer.org/treatment/findingandpayingfortreatment/managinginsuranceissues/the-cost-of-cancer-treatment
Date Accessed: Nov. 20, 2014

Average Medical Cost

Prostate cancer treatment can cost from $19,901 for robot-assisted prostatectomy to treat low-risk disease, to $50,276 for combined radiation therapy for high-risk disease.

Wiley Online Library. BJU International. Primary treatments for clinically localised prostate cancer: a comprehensive lifetime cost-utility analysis. Matthew R. Cooperberg, Naren R. Ramakrishna, Steven B. Duff, Kathleen E. Hughes, Sara Sadownik, Joseph A. Smith, and Ashutosh K. Tewari.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11597.x/abstract;jsessionid=A23F539C4D8CA4A65A11BA078126C7B3.f03t02
Date accessed: Nov. 24, 2014

Average Annual Costs of Care, prostate cancer: $19,710, for individuals over age 65.

U.S. National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, www.cancer.org
http://costprojections.cancer.gov/annual.costs.html
Date Accessed: Nov. 20, 2014

Average annual health care expenses for newly diagnosed cancer patients younger than 65 years were $16,910 in 2007, with $2,159 (13%) paid directly out of survivors' pockets.

American Cancer Society, Cancer Treatment & Survivorship Facts & Figures, 2012-2013, page 20
http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@epidemiologysurveilance/documents/document/acspc-033876.pdf
Date Accessed: Nov. 20, 2014

For an uninsured man with prostate cancer, the price of surgery could range from $10,000 to $135,000, depending on the hospital.

WebMD News from HealthDay. Cost of Prostate Cancer Surgery Varies Widely: Fees have no reflection on quality, researchers say. Amy Norton.
http://www.webmd.com/prostate-cancer/news/20140619/cost-of-prostate-cancer-surgery-varies-widely-in-us
Date accessed: Nov. 25, 2014

The general price for a new cancer drug is over $100,000 per year.

CBS News.com.
http://www.cbsnews.com/news/the-cost-of-cancer-drugs/
Date accessed: Nov. 25, 2014

The typical new cancer drug coming on the market a decade ago cost about $4,500 per month (in 2012 dollars); since 2010 the median price has been around $10,000. Two of the new cancer drugs cost more than $35,000 each per month of treatment.

New York Times.com. In Cancer Care, Cost Matters. Peter B. Bach, Leonard B. Saltz, and Robert E. Wittes.
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/15/opinion/a-hospital-says-no-to-an-11000-a-month-cancer-drug.html?_r=2&
Date accessed: Nov. 25, 2014

Mean hospital costs in 2012 were highest for surgical stays ($21,200)—2.5 times the mean costs for medical stays ($8,500) and nearly five times the mean costs for maternal and neonatal stays ($4,300).

The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Statistical Brief #181, Costs for Hospital Stays in the United States, 2012. Brian Moore, Ph.D., Katharine Levit, B.A., and Anne Elixhauser, Ph.D., Published October 2014
http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb181-Hospital-Costs-United-States-2012.pdf
Date Accessed: Nov. 20, 2014

General/Statistical Information

Prostate cancer occurs mainly in older men. About 6 cases in 10 are diagnosed in men aged 65 or older, and it is rare before age 40.

American Cancer Society
http://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/detailedguide/prostate-cancer-key-statistics
Date Accessed: Nov. 20, 2014

66 is the average age of diagnosis for prostate cancer.

American Cancer Society
http://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/detailedguide/prostate-cancer-key-statistics
Date Accessed: Nov. 20, 2014

aDiabetes

Average Medical Cost

People with diagnosed diabetes incur average medical expenditures of about $13,700 per year, of which about $7,900 is attributed to diabetes. People with diagnosed diabetes, on average, have medical expenditures approximately 2.3 times higher than what expenditures would be in the absence of diabetes.

American Diabetes Association. The Cost of Diabetes.
http://www.diabetes.org/advocacy/news-events/cost-of-diabetes.html
Date accessed: Nov. 24, 2014

The burden per case averaged $10,970 for diagnosed diabetes, $5,800 for gestational diabetes, $4,030 for undiagnosed diabetes, and $510 for prediabetes.

American Diabetes Association. The Economic Burden of Elevated Blood Glucose Levels in 2012: Diagnosed and Undiagnosed Diabetes, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, and Prediabetes. Timothy M. Dall, Wenya Yang, Pragna Halder, Bo Pang, Marjan Massoudi, Neil Wintfeld, April P. Semilla, Jerry Franz and Paul F. Hogan.
http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/37/12/3172.abstract?ijkey=8e71591eceaf135954065235c43a187ec2a976c7&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
Date accessed: Nov. 24, 2014

General/Statistical Information

In the U.S., 13.4 million women have diabetes (11.2 percent of all women ages 20 years and older).

Department of Health and Human Services. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Division of Diabetes Translation. National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2014.
http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/statsreport14/national-diabetes-report-web.pdf

In the U.S., 15.5 million men have diabetes (13.6 percent of all men ages 20 years and older).

Department of Health and Human Services. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Division of Diabetes Translation. National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2014.
http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/statsreport14/national-diabetes-report-web.pdf
Date Accessed: Nov. 24, 2014

In the U.S., 11.2 million Americans ages 65 and older have diabetes — 25.9 percent of this age group.

Department of Health and Human Services. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Division of Diabetes Translation. National Diabetes Statistics Report, 2014.
http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/statsreport14/national-diabetes-report-web.pdf
Date Accessed: Nov. 24, 2014

aBroken Leg

Average Medical Cost

Average unadjusted direct costs in the 6 months before a long bone fracture ranged from $3,291 (radius) to $12,923 (hip). The average incremental direct cost increase in the 6 months following a fracture ranged from $5,707 (radius) to $39,041 (multiple fractures). Incremental absenteeism costs ranged from $950 (radius) to $2,600 (multiple fractures), while incremental short-term disability costs ranged from $2,050 (radius) to $4,600 (multiple fractures).

US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. The direct and indirect costs of long bone fractures in a working age US population. Bonafede M, Espindle D, Bower AG.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23035626
Date accessed: Nov. 24, 2014

Medical costs of non-union tibia shaft fracture patients were higher than of their counterparts without non-union. This was true for services directly related to tibia fractures and other services, even if some of them had a comparable rate of use between the groups (Table 4 lists median and mean treatment costs with standard deviations). This was true for almost all types of healthcare services: directly related to tibia fracture and other services. This resulted in median total care cost for non-union patients almost doubling that of patients without a non-union ($25,555.97 vs. $11,686.24, P < 0.001). Median costs of inpatient services not related to tibia fractures were almost 20 times higher in non-union patients than in those without non-union ($7,214.43 vs. $368.81, P < 0.001). Although both groups used outpatient services with similar likelihood (Table 3), the median costs of these services were higher in the non-union patients than in those without nonunion for both tibia related ($674.05 vs. $150.1, P < 0.001) and non-tibia related ones ($9,952.65 vs. $3,850.53, P < 0.001).

BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. Tibia shaft fractures: costly burden of non-unions, Evgeniya Antonova*, T Kim Le, Russel Burge and John Mershon. BioMed Central.
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/14/42
Date accessed: Nov. 24, 2014

For 25- to 40-year-olds, the estimated average charges for a leg fracture were about $3,403

Department of Health and Human Services. ASPE ISSUE BRIEF. Common Sports Injuries: Incidence and Average Charges. Arpit Misra.
http://www.aspe.hhs.gov/health/reports/2014/SportsInjuries/ib_SportsInjuries.pdf
Date accessed: Nov. 24, 2014

General/Statistical Information

Extremity fractures are most common, and usually occur in men younger than age 45, and then become more common in women over age 45. The most common fracture prior to age 75 is a wrist fracture. In those over age 75, hip fractures become the most common broken bone.

All About Broken Bones: Learn About Fractures and Treatments of these Injuries. Jonathan Cluett, M.D.
http://orthopedics.about.com/cs/otherfractures/a/fracture.htm
Date Accessed: Nov. 24, 2014

aBroken Leg (for children)

Among adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19 years, the estimated average charge for a leg fracture was about $4,700.

Department of Health and Human Services. ASPE ISSUE BRIEF. Common Sports Injuries: Incidence and Average Charges. Arpit Misra.
http://www.aspe.hhs.gov/health/reports/2014/SportsInjuries/ib_SportsInjuries.pdf
Date accessed: Nov. 24, 2014

Medical costs of non-union tibia shaft fracture patients were higher than of their counterparts without non-union. This was true for services directly related to tibia fractures and other services, even if some of them had a comparable rate of use between the groups (Table 4 lists median and mean treatment costs with standard deviations). This was true for almost all types of healthcare services: directly related to tibia fracture and other services. This resulted in median total care cost for non-union patients almost doubling that of patients without a non-union ($25,555.97 vs. $11,686.24, P < 0.001). Median costs of inpatient services not related to tibia fractures were almost 20 times higher in non-union patients than in those without non-union ($7,214.43 vs. $368.81, P < 0.001). Although both groups used outpatient services with similar likelihood (Table 3), the median costs of these services were higher in the non-union patients than in those without non-union for both tibia related ($674.05 vs. $150.1, P < 0.001) and non-tibia related ones ($9,952.65 vs. $3,850.53, P < 0.001).

BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. Tibia shaft fractures: costly burden of non-unions, Evgeniya Antonova*, T Kim Le, Russel Burge and John Mershon. BioMed Central.
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/14/42
Date Accessed: Nov. 21, 2014

General/Statistical Information

More than 200,000 children visit emergency rooms annually for playground injuries.

National Safety Council Facts
http://www.nsc.org/NSCDocuments_Advocacy/Fact%20Sheets/Playground-Safety.pdf
Date Accessed: Nov. 21, 2014

aLeukemia (for children)

Average Medical Cost

$360,000 is an average cost for autologous bone marrow transplants and first-year expenses and $800,000 is an average cost for allogeneic bone marrow transplants and first-year expenses.

”How Much Does a Transplant Cost?” National Foundation for Transplants.
http://www.transplants.org/faq/how-much-does-transplant-cost
Accessed: Dec. 22, 2014

An autologous transplant may range from $50,000 to $100,000 depending on the circumstances. An allogeneic transplant may range from $150,000 to $200,000.

Resource Guide for Bone Marrow/Stem Cell Transplant. National Bone Marrow Transplant Link.
http://www.nbmtlink.org/resources_support/rg/rg_costs.htm
Date accessed: Dec. 22, 2014

Estimated billed charges for an autologous transplant were $363,800. Estimated billed charges for an allogeneic transplant were $805,400.

2011 U.S. organ and tissue transplant cost estimates and discussion. Milliman Research Report.
http://publications.milliman.com/research/health-rr/pdfs/2011-us-organ-tissue.pdf
Accessed: Dec. 22, 2014

The general price for a new cancer drug is over $100,000 per year.

CBS News.com.
http://www.cbsnews.com/news/the-cost-of-cancer-drugs/
Date accessed: Nov. 25, 2014

The typical new cancer drug coming on the market a decade ago cost about $4,500 per month (in 2012 dollars); since 2010 the median price has been around $10,000. Two of the new cancer drugs cost more than $35,000 each per month of treatment.

New York Times.com. In Cancer Care, Cost Matters. Peter B. Bach, Leonard B. Saltz, and Robert E. Wittes.
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/15/opinion/a-hospital-says-no-to-an-11000-a-month-cancer-drug.html?_r=2&
Date accessed: Nov. 25, 2014

Mean hospital costs in 2012 were highest for surgical stays ($21,200)—2.5 times the mean costs for medical stays ($8,500) and nearly five times the mean costs for maternal and neonatal stays ($4,300).

The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Statistical Brief #181, Costs for Hospital Stays in the United States, 2012. Brian Moore, Ph.D., Katharine Levit, B.A., and Anne Elixhauser, Ph.D., Published October 2014
http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb181-Hospital-Costs-United-States-2012.pdf
Date Accessed: Nov. 20, 2014

General/Statistical Information

Among children and teens less than 20 years old, leukemia is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/dcpc/data/children.htm
Date Accessed: Nov. 21, 2014

aAsthma (for children)

Average Out of Pocket Cost

The researchers found that across plans, the average out-of-pocket cost of asthma medications per year was $154 among those ages 5 to 18 years and $151 among those younger than 5 years.

PubMed.gov. US National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health. Out-of-pocket medication costs and use of medications and health care services among children with asthma. Karaca-Mandic P1, Jena AB, Joyce GF, Goldman DP.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22453569
Date Accessed: Nov. 21, 2014

Average Medical Cost

The average yearly cost of care for a child with asthma was $1,039 in 2009.

Asthma’s Impact on the Nation. Data from the CDC National Asthma Control Program.
http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/impacts_nation/asthmafactsheet.pdf
Date accessed: Nov. 21, 2014

Very poorly controlled asthma patients incurred at baseline an average of $7,846 in costs associated with asthma, compared to $3,526 for not well controlled asthma patients and $3,766 for well controlled asthma, therefore costs range from $3,526 to $7,846.

News Article; UPI.com, published Aug. 8, 2011; the study, published in The Archives of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, by Dr. Stanley Szefler, a professor of pediatrics at National Jewish Health.
http://www.upi.com/Health_News/2011/08/07/Poorly-controlled-asthma-doubles-costs/UPI-59571312692406/

And original source:

Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. Economic burden of impairment in children with severe or difficult-to-treat asthma. Stanley J. Szefler, MD, Robert S. Zeiger, MD, PhD, Tmirah Haselkorn, PhDemail, David R. Mink, MS, Tripthi V. Kamath, PhD, James E. Fish, MD, Bradley E. Chipps, MD.
http://www.annallergy.org/article/S1081-1206(11)00262-6/abstract
Date Accessed: Nov. 21, 2014

The average expenditure per child for asthma is $969.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. STATISTICAL BRIEF #434: The Five Most Costly Children's Conditions, 2011: Estimates for U.S. Civilian Noninstitutionalized Children, Ages 0-17
http://meps.ahrq.gov/mepsweb/data_files/publications/st434/stat434.shtml
Date Accessed: Nov. 21, 2014

General/Statistical Information

Asthma is the most common lasting disorder in childhood.

Healthychildren.org, from the American Academy of Pediatrics
http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/allergies-asthma/pages/Treatment-of-Childhood-Asthma.aspx
Date Accessed: Nov. 21, 2014

Asthma is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children under age 15.

American Lung Association. Asthma & Children Fact Sheet.
http://www.lung.org/lung-disease/asthma/resources/facts-and-figures/asthma-children-fact-sheet.html
Date Accessed: Nov. 21, 2014

Asthma affects an estimated 7.1 million children under 18.

American Lung Association. Asthma & Children Fact Sheet.
http://www.lung.org/lung-disease/asthma/resources/facts-and-figures/asthma-children-fact-sheet.html
Date Accessed: Nov. 21, 2014

aPneumonia (for children)

Average Medical Cost

Costs per person, per year of direct medical expenditures for patients with pneumonia: from $769 (ages 5-17) to $2,055 (under age of five).

The University of Texas at Austin College of Pharmacy, Haesuk Park and Karen Rascati
http://www.utexas.edu/pharmacy/research/posters/ispor11/park1.pdf
Date Accessed: Nov. 20, 2014

Mean hospital costs in 2012 were highest for surgical stays ($21,200)—2.5 times the mean costs for medical stays ($8,500) and nearly five times the mean costs for maternal and neonatal stays ($4,300).

The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Statistical Brief #181, Costs for Hospital Stays in the United States, 2012. Brian Moore, Ph.D., Katharine Levit, B.A., and Anne Elixhauser, Ph.D.
http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb181-Hospital-Costs-United-States-2012.pdf
Date Accessed: Nov. 20, 2014

General/Statistical Information

Pneumonia affects more boys than girls.

Boston Children's Hospital
http://www.childrenshospital.org/az/Site1457/mainpageS1457P0.html
Date Accessed: Nov. 21, 2014

About 10 to 15 percent of children with a respiratory infection have pneumonia.

Boston Children's Hospital
http://www.childrenshospital.org/az/Site1457/mainpageS1457P0.html
Date Accessed: Nov. 21, 2014

Approximately one-third of the pneumonia cases in the United States each year are caused by respiratory viruses. These viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in children younger than 5 years.

American Lung Association
http://www.lung.org/lung-disease/pneumonia/understanding-pneumonia.html
Date Accessed: Nov. 21, 2014

Z141230, January 2015